Pyogenic Granuloma in Pregnancy: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments

Pyogenic Granuloma
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The Pyogenic Granuloma are skin growths that occur both on the skin and mucosa. They are also known as pregnancy tumours because they mostly occur during pregnancy.

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The growths are small, raised skin; they have a smooth surface and appear moist. They also are usually blood-red in colour. They tend to bleed often. This is because they possess a larger number of blood vessels.

The Pyogenic Granuloma growth starts as a lesion and then quickly grows for a few weeks. When it stabilizes, it appears raised and reddish, usually as small as or even smaller than two centimetres. The lesion may appear smooth. If it bleeds a lot, it may have a crusty or rough surface.

The Occurrence of the Pyogenic Granuloma can be seen across all ages. However, they are most common among females than males. The Pyogenic Granuloma is mostly found in pregnant women.

This is because of the hormonal changes that happen during pregnancy. Lesions may occur during the first trimester with an increasing incidence until the seventh month, and they usually occur on the gums.

The Pyogenic Granuloma mostly occurs on the hand, arms, fingers, face, neck, chest, back, the lips, eyelids, genitals, the gum, and mouth. In rare cases, they can develop on the cornea or conjunctiva in the skin.

The Pyogenic Granuloma is benign, and this implies that they are noncancerous growths. The following are also names of the Pyogenic Granuloma names;

  • Pregnancy tumours
  • Tumour of pregnancy
  • Eruptive Hemangioma
  • Granulation tissue-type hemangioma
  • Granuloma gravidarum
  • Lobular capillary hemangioma

The Pyogenic Granuloma was first described in the year,
1897, by two French surgeons, Antonin Poncet and Dor. They called the lesion botryomycosis hominis

Symptoms of Pyogenic Granuloma

Raised skin or small red lump on the skin that bleeds very easily. Often found on the site if a recent injury. They occur mostly on hands, arms, face. In pregnant women, they mostly occur in the mouth.

Common complications include frequent bleeding.

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Causes of Pyogenic Granuloma

The exact cause of the Pyogenic Granulomas is unclear. The Pyogenic Granulomas growths or lesions often appear following an injury or trauma caused by insect bites or by frequent and rough scratching of the skin. However, it has no association with infection.

During pregnancy, the woman’s body goes through hormonal changes, and this is believed to be the cause of Pyogenic Granuloma. There are also specific drugs that can cause The Pyogenic Granuloma. These medications include; indinavir (Crixivan), acitretin (Soriatane), isotretinoin (Accutane), and some birth control pills.

Diagnosis of Pyogenic Granuloma

Diagnosis for the Pyogenic Granuloma is made based on its appearance. The doctor might do a biopsy to make an accurate diagnosis. A biopsy procedure involves taking a sample of the affected tissue for testing and examination. A biopsy also helps rule out cancerous and other medical conditions that can cause similar growth.

Conditions such as the squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma bear a similar resemblance to The Pyogenic Granuloma. Thus, the biopsy helps rule them out as the cause of the lesions.

Treatment of Pyogenic Granuloma

Pregnancy Granuloma
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Usually, there is no treatment for the pyogenic Granuloma, especially if it occurs during pregnancy. However, since the condition is a self-resolving ailment, the lesions may go away on its own.

The small pyogenic granulomas tend to go away suddenly and faster than larger bumps. But then, treatment may be considered due to bleeding and ulceration.

If there is a case of recurrent bleeding in either oral or nasal lesions, then carrying out excision and cauterization sooner will be necessary. However, even if administering aesthetics may be of concern, the treatment may still be pursued nevertheless.

Large Pyogenic Granulomas can be shaved off and lightly cauterized. Cauterizing helps reduce the bleeding and reduce the chances of it growing back.

Other methods to stop bleeding include the application of silver nitrate to the lesion. The Pyogenic Granuloma can also be removed surgically. This is if The Pyogenic Granuloma has occurred more than once after non-surgical treatment.

Usually, only minor surgery may be conducted, along with a dental cleaning for oral lesions to remove any calculus or other source of irritation. For nasal lesions, nose-picking should be discouraged.

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There are recent studies on non-invasive treatments for the Pyogenic Granuloma, especially concerning kids. It has been found that topical ointments like the timolol applied as a gel on the lesion are effective and also without negative side effects.

Another means of treatment is removal through laser surgery. A dye laser is known to be effective.

In rare cases where The Pyogenic Granuloma grows on the eye conjivitis and cornea, they can be treated with ointments that contain corticosteroids. They help alleviate the inflammation. They also are removed surgically.

In cases of infected pregnant women, the doctor may advise them to wait to see if the Pyogenic Granuloma growths resolve on their own after delivery. Experts believe that the reduction of hormone levels in the body helps in the resolution of The Pyogenic Granuloma growth and lesions. This is ultimately the safest method for the developing fetus.

It is highly unadvisable to pick at the Pyogenic Granuloma lesions, or try to remove them on your own. They have the tendency to bleed for a long time. Please contact your health care provider or doctor to have the growth properly removed.

When to go back to your health care provider

The Pyogenic Granuloma has the tendency to grow back after being removed. They grow back in up to half the cases, especially if they are located in the upper back area.

In rare cases, lesions may appear in the area where the Pyogenic Granuloma was removed. If the Pyogenic Granuloma was not removed completely, the myxoid structures left behind might spread to other blood vessels in the same area, causing the onset of another infection.

It is normal to feel concerned; that is why you should contact your health care provider to discuss treatment options.

Contact your doctor if you notice that the lesions bleed very frequently or changes appearance.

Sources;

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Pyogenic Granuloma
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Emmanuella Oluwafemi
Emmanuella Oluwafemi is a Sociologist and Anthropologist, writer, and pedicurist. When she's not writing an article, she's surfing the web for new skills to learn.
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